汽车租赁公司主要从事汽车租赁服务，根据中国证监会发布的《上市汽车租赁公司行业分类指引》规定，汽车租赁公司业务所处行业属于K39“租赁服务业”。根据国家统计局2011 年8 月颁布实施的《国民经济行业分类》国家标准(GB/T 4754-2011)，汽车租赁公司所处行业为“租赁业”大类下属的“机械设备租赁”的其中一个分支——汽车租赁。
The car rental industry will develop in three directions in the future: first, customized leasing; second, cooperative financial system; and third, shortened vehicle renewal cycle.
The car rental business is divided into operating car rental business and financing car rental business according to their nature. Business-oriented car rental, that is, the traditional lease, refers to the car rental company will purchase their own vehicles leased to the lessee for use, the lessee pays rent on schedule, the lessee returns the car after the expiry of the lease, the car rental company will continue to lease the car to other lessees; financing car rental, the pointer for a long-term. The car rental company will lease the owner of the vehicle to the customer, and the customer will pay the rent monthly. When the lease term expires, the car rental company will transfer the ownership of the vehicle to the customer. This is an innovative form of car rental and finance.
First, the classification of the industry of the car rental company.
Car rental companies are mainly engaged in car rental services, according to the China Securities Regulatory Commission issued the "Listed Car Rental Companies Industry Classification Guidelines" stipulated that the car rental company business in the industry belongs to K39 "rental services". According to the National Economic Industry Classification (GB/T 4754-2011) issued by the National Bureau of Statistics in August 2011, the automobile rental company is located in one of the branches of "mechanical equipment leasing" under the category of "rental industry".
Two, industry development and Prospects
(1) development of car rental industry
1, the overall development of international car rental industry
The international car rental industry has a history of more than 100 years, initially confined to the European market. After World War II, the car rental industry entered a period of vigorous development, the market broke through the geographical constraints of Europe, showing a worldwide trend of development. The scale of operation expanded from US $15 billion at the end of 80s to over 100 billion US dollars in 2000. The number of car rental companies also exceeds 5000. After entering the twenty-first Century, the international car rental market has penetrated into all aspects of the automotive industry.
2. General situation of China's car rental industry development
China's car rental industry is still in its early stage of development, with low permeability and great potential in the future. Car rental services can be divided into financing car rental and operating car rental according to the nature of the lease, in which operating car rental can be divided into short-term rental and long-term rental according to the length of the lease. At present, most of the rental vehicles in the market are used for short-term rental, short-term rental is the most mainstream car rental mode.
By the end of 2012, there have been thousands of car rental companies in China. More than half of them are located in first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, and their distribution is limited in second and third-tier cities. In terms of market share, the top 10 rental car rental companies have a market share of about 12%, which is higher than the concentration in 2011, but the relatively mature market is still quite low. From the distribution of the number of enterprises, the number of small-scale regional car rental companies is the largest, except for very few large enterprises, the average fleet size is only about 50 cars, it is difficult to achieve economies of scale; the number of financing car rental car rental companies is small, and the annual car rental volume is not the same. High. Although there have been more than ten large-scale short-rental car rental companies in China, such as Shenzhou rental car, Yihei rental car, Win Shitong and so on, the overall market share is still lower than the mature market.
Another obvious sign that China's car rental industry is still in its early stages of development is that the market penetration rate of car rental (the proportion of car rental to total passenger car ownership) is significantly lower than that of mature European and American markets. At present, the domestic individual rental market is basically not open, even car rental companies fleet, the lease penetration rate is less than 10%, and the customer is basically foreign enterprises; and in mature markets such as Germany and France, nearly 50% of car rental companies will sell vehicles in the form of lease every year.
In some major rental markets, such as Shanghai and Beijing, there are still strict nominal restrictions on car rental. For example, Shanghai has strict restrictions on enterprise rental qualification certification and vehicle licence (Y licence). However, due to the huge demand for car rental in the market, there are many unauthorized vehicle operations which the government does not have. The crackdown makes the gray market almost become the mainstream of the local car rental market. But in terms of market demand and current government attitudes, market regulations will remain at least as they are in the short run, and in the long run, similar regulatory restrictions will eventually be lifted.