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全面细致的解读汽车租赁行业市场概况

大字小字2018-10-16 14:08

  汽车租赁业未来将向三个方向发展:第一是定制租赁;第二是合作金融系统;第三是车辆更新周期缩短。
  汽车租赁业务按性质不同分为经营性汽车租赁业务和融资性汽车租赁业务。经营性汽车租赁,即传统意义上的租赁,指汽车租赁公司将购置的自有车辆出租给承租人使用,由承租人按期支付租金,租约到期后承租人返还车辆,汽车租赁公司继续将车辆出租于其他承租人;融资性汽车租赁,指针对有长期用车需求的企业或个人,汽车租赁公司将购置车辆长租给客户使用,客户按月支付租金,待租期届满,汽车租赁公司将车辆所有权过户给客户,是汽车租赁与金融相结合的创新业态。
  一、汽车租赁公司所处行业分类情况
  汽车租赁公司主要从事汽车租赁服务,根据中国证监会发布的《上市汽车租赁公司行业分类指引》规定,汽车租赁公司业务所处行业属于K39“租赁服务业”。根据国家统计局2011 年8 月颁布实施的《国民经济行业分类》国家标准(GB/T 4754-2011),汽车租赁公司所处行业为“租赁业”大类下属的“机械设备租赁”的其中一个分支——汽车租赁。
  二、行业发展概况及前景
  (一) 汽车租赁行业发展概况
  1、国际汽车租赁行业发展整体概况
  国际汽车租赁业具有超过100年的历史,最初仅限于欧洲市场。二战后,汽车租赁业进入了蓬勃发展时期,市场突破了欧洲的地域限制,在世界范围均呈现出发展之势。经营规模从80年代末的150亿美元扩张到2000年的过千亿美元。从业汽车租赁公司数量也超过了5000家。进入21世纪后,国际汽车租赁市场已经渗透到汽车行业的方方面面。
  2、中国汽车租赁行业发展整体概况
  中国汽车租赁行业仍处于早期发展阶段,渗透率较低,未来潜力巨大。汽车租赁服务可以根据租赁性质分为融资性汽车租赁和经营性汽车租赁,其中经营性汽车租赁可以再根据租用时长划分为短租和长租,目前市场上大多数租赁车辆用于短租,短租是当前最主流的汽车租赁方式。
  截至2012年底,中国已有数千家汽车租赁汽车租赁公司,其中一半以上的企业位于北京、上海、深圳等一线城市,在二、三线等城市的分布渗透有限。从市场占有率来看,排名前十的租赁汽车租赁公司市场占有率约为12%,虽相比2011年集中度有所提高,但相对成熟市场仍然相当低。从企业数量分布来看,小规模区域性经营的汽车长租汽车租赁公司数量最多,除极个别大型企业外,平均车队规模仅在50辆汽车左右,很难达到规模经济效应;融资性汽车租赁汽车租赁公司数量较少,同时每年的车辆租赁量也不高。虽然国内业已形成了十数家颇具规模的短租汽车租赁公司,例如神州租车、一嗨租车、赢时通等,但整体市场份额相比成熟市场仍然较低。
  中国汽车租赁行业仍处于早期发展阶段的另一个明显标志,是市场汽车租赁渗透率(租赁汽车数量占乘用车总保有量的比例)较欧美成熟市场明显偏低。目前在国内,个人租赁市场基本未开放,即使是汽车租赁公司车队,租赁渗透率也不到10%,且客户基本为外企;而在德国法国等成熟市场,每年近50%的汽车租赁公司车辆会以租赁形式出售。
  在上海和北京等一些主要租赁市场,法规仍然对汽车租赁有着名义上的严格限制,例如上海对企业租赁资质认证和车辆牌照(Y牌照)有严格限制,但由于市场上对汽车租赁的巨大需求,存在很多无资质的车辆运营,而政府并没有对之进行打击,使得灰色市场几乎成为当地汽车租赁市场的主流。但从市场需求和目前政府的态度来看,短期内市场法规至少会维持现状,而长期来看,类似法规限制终将会逐步解除。
  The car rental industry will develop in three directions in the future: first, customized leasing; second, cooperative financial system; and third, shortened vehicle renewal cycle.
  The car rental business is divided into operating car rental business and financing car rental business according to their nature. Business-oriented car rental, that is, the traditional lease, refers to the car rental company will purchase their own vehicles leased to the lessee for use, the lessee pays rent on schedule, the lessee returns the car after the expiry of the lease, the car rental company will continue to lease the car to other lessees; financing car rental, the pointer for a long-term. The car rental company will lease the owner of the vehicle to the customer, and the customer will pay the rent monthly. When the lease term expires, the car rental company will transfer the ownership of the vehicle to the customer. This is an innovative form of car rental and finance.
  First, the classification of the industry of the car rental company.
  Car rental companies are mainly engaged in car rental services, according to the China Securities Regulatory Commission issued the "Listed Car Rental Companies Industry Classification Guidelines" stipulated that the car rental company business in the industry belongs to K39 "rental services". According to the National Economic Industry Classification (GB/T 4754-2011) issued by the National Bureau of Statistics in August 2011, the automobile rental company is located in one of the branches of "mechanical equipment leasing" under the category of "rental industry".
  Two, industry development and Prospects
  (1) development of car rental industry
  1, the overall development of international car rental industry
  The international car rental industry has a history of more than 100 years, initially confined to the European market. After World War II, the car rental industry entered a period of vigorous development, the market broke through the geographical constraints of Europe, showing a worldwide trend of development. The scale of operation expanded from US $15 billion at the end of 80s to over 100 billion US dollars in 2000. The number of car rental companies also exceeds 5000. After entering the twenty-first Century, the international car rental market has penetrated into all aspects of the automotive industry.
  2. General situation of China's car rental industry development
  China's car rental industry is still in its early stage of development, with low permeability and great potential in the future. Car rental services can be divided into financing car rental and operating car rental according to the nature of the lease, in which operating car rental can be divided into short-term rental and long-term rental according to the length of the lease. At present, most of the rental vehicles in the market are used for short-term rental, short-term rental is the most mainstream car rental mode.
  By the end of 2012, there have been thousands of car rental companies in China. More than half of them are located in first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, and their distribution is limited in second and third-tier cities. In terms of market share, the top 10 rental car rental companies have a market share of about 12%, which is higher than the concentration in 2011, but the relatively mature market is still quite low. From the distribution of the number of enterprises, the number of small-scale regional car rental companies is the largest, except for very few large enterprises, the average fleet size is only about 50 cars, it is difficult to achieve economies of scale; the number of financing car rental car rental companies is small, and the annual car rental volume is not the same. High. Although there have been more than ten large-scale short-rental car rental companies in China, such as Shenzhou rental car, Yihei rental car, Win Shitong and so on, the overall market share is still lower than the mature market.
  Another obvious sign that China's car rental industry is still in its early stages of development is that the market penetration rate of car rental (the proportion of car rental to total passenger car ownership) is significantly lower than that of mature European and American markets. At present, the domestic individual rental market is basically not open, even car rental companies fleet, the lease penetration rate is less than 10%, and the customer is basically foreign enterprises; and in mature markets such as Germany and France, nearly 50% of car rental companies will sell vehicles in the form of lease every year.
  In some major rental markets, such as Shanghai and Beijing, there are still strict nominal restrictions on car rental. For example, Shanghai has strict restrictions on enterprise rental qualification certification and vehicle licence (Y licence). However, due to the huge demand for car rental in the market, there are many unauthorized vehicle operations which the government does not have. The crackdown makes the gray market almost become the mainstream of the local car rental market. But in terms of market demand and current government attitudes, market regulations will remain at least as they are in the short run, and in the long run, similar regulatory restrictions will eventually be lifted.

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